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The ability to accurately measure, in situ, temperature fluctuations below 1e-6 C/sec on a 1 CC sample offers a universal probe into the study of bacteria, human cells, tissues, etc. with a minimum amount (usually none) sample preparation required to make the measurements.  Unlike other techniques, samples can be of any form, including opaque liquids, solids, and suspensions.   There is no "glass ceiling" as one faces with light scattering techniques when the concentration of suspended cells becomes too high for turbidity type measurements.  Also, since the technique senses metabolic heat it is a direct measurement of the activity of the culture where as indirect methods (e.g., light scattering) cannot permit determination if a cell is active or inactive after the addition of, for example, cytotoxins.

Gas (e.g., oxygen) flows can be controlled in real time, permitting anaerobic and aerobic data (e.g., glycolysis) to be collected on the same sample.  Solids or solutions can be added during the experiment permitting one to study, for example, the impact of an oncologic drug substance on the metabolic heat output of a tissue sample.

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